As western Canada’s glaciers continue to retreat and as snow accumulation and ablation patterns change in response to regional and amplified altitudinal warming, there will also be hydrological responses that will impact ecosystems, communities, hydroelectric generation and irrigation, amongst others. Thus there is an urgent need to quantify the changing contributions of glaciers and snowpacks to runoff generation in the principal watersheds of western Canada. As these basins remain poorly monitored, especially at higher elevations, it remains unknown how much meltwater from seasonal snowpacks and glaciers contribute to their flows. Warm air temperatures may also change the seasonality of flows, with the likelihood of enhanced flows in winter, an earlier spring freshet followed by an amplified summer recession and reduced flows. The main objective of the MOD theme is to quantify the impacts of a changing cryosphere (snowpacks, glaciers) on streamflow generation and its timing across major mountain watersheds.